Music knows no frontiers. And, any Indian listener to the music of the selected twentieth century continental European composers discussed in this book will recognize the latters’ response to the horrors of their times: war, violence, totalitarian systems of Left and Right, Gulag and Holocaust, and Occupations, both Nazi and Soviet. As such, it becomes imperative that these twentieth century pieces also be contextualized in terms of family, sexuality, politics and religion. Yet, most profoundly, the musical compositions were an exploration of the spiritual, both this-worldly and transcendental, and often deeply immersed in Indian culture. Indian philosophy mesmerised Scriabin, the Krishna story inspired Messiaen’s Turangalila Symphony and, Aurobindo’s supramentalism strongly influenced Stockhausen. This book will be of interest to scholars and researchers who engage with twentieth century political and cultural history.